The Lapis Gates of Sumer


Intro to Sumer

The Gods

The Texts

Sumerian Calendar

Ancient Rites





These are news articles that hold an interest to me. I hope you find an interest in them, too. Many are old and out of date, which is probably why no one really shakes a litigious finger at them, but they are still interesting.

Cowrie Shells and their Imitations as Ornamental Amulets in Egypt and the Near East 2014
Ancient Sumerian Relics Found in English Cupboard June 2014
Ancient City Of Idu Discovered Beneath Mound In Iraq Huffington Post 1 Oct 2013
Archaeologists Explore Ancient Sumerian Settlement Site in Iraq 4 April 2013
Ancient Iraq yields fresh finds for returning archaeologists Christian Science Monitor March 27, 2013
4500-year old Sumerian temple found in Ur Archaeology News Network 23 Feb 2012
Iraq's ancient Ur treasures 'in danger' AFP June 18, 2011
The story behind the world’s oldest museum, built by a Babylonian princess 2,500 years ago, May 25, 2011
Pagan altar unearthed at Ashkelon hospital construction site May 31, 2010
After Years of War and Abuse, New Hope for Ancient Babylon New York Times, March 22, 2010
Unearthing the riches of Ur in war-ravaged Iraq APF February 19, 2010
French find prehistoric animal worship site, Sept. 24, 2009
Ancient green beads were fertility amulets 24 Aug 2008
Report: Ancient Iran  National Geographic, August 2008
Divine Service in Early Lagash Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 42 (1922), 91-104
Ancient cities uncovered in Middle East 2 Sept 2007
Sumer Loses Bragging Rights 31 May 2000
The Sacred Tree on Palestine Painted Pottery Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 59, No 2 Jun 1939, 251-259

Non-News Articles

Babylonian Astrology
Babylonian Witchcraft Notes from the book, Mesopotamian Witchcraft
A Short FAQ About Demons

PDF's of Interest

Note: some of these PDF's may be a little 'heavy', and might take a few minutes to open. Let me know if you have a problem, and I'll email it to you. Email is below. Also, most of the articles are old and out of date, but they are interesting.

Utu, the Sumerian God of Commerce
Sumerian Grammar
Sumerian Studies
The Great Magician
Performing Death: Social Analysis of Funerary Traditions in the ANE and Mediterranean
Elementary Sumerian
The Eastern Mediterranean Epic Tradition from Bilgamesh and Akka to the Song of Release to Homer's Iliad
Prophecy in the Ancient Near East
The Palestine-Israel Conflict

Slightly Off-Topic but of interest to me

Gender Transgression
Gay Politics
Christian Intolerance

Other Pantheons

Ancient Ireland
Kelts and Ligurians
British Druidism and the Roman War Policy
Children's Rhymes and Incantations
Creating the Past The Vénus de Milo and the Hellenistic Reception of Classical Greece
Inquiry into the Physical Characteristics of the Ancient and Modern Celt of Gaul and Britain
Keltic and Germanic
On the Inhabitants of Asia Minor Previous to the Time of the Greeks
Religious Beliefs of the Pagan Irish
The Delphian Hymn to Apollo
The Talmudic Records of Persian and Babylonian Festivals Critically Illustrated

I have the articles below but they are not mine to distribute. Most of them can be found at Very few are free, most of them are about $8 each. Unless you have access to a university library, at which you can download them for free. I really took advantage of that when I was working at a university years ago.

These are all articles from those dry, scholarly journals that only get read by us nerd-geek types.

An Akkadian Cruciform Monument
“In the Heart of the Sea”: Fathoming the Exodus
An Apotropaic Incest Ritual in the Baal and Anath Cycle
An Archaeology of Funerary Rituals
An Early Version of the Atra-Hasis Epic
An Esoteric Babylonian Commentary Revisited
Ancient Mesopotamian Assemblies
Ancient Mesopotamian Religions: The Central Concerns
Ancient Themes and Characteristics Found in Certain New England Folk Songs
Assumed Conflict Between Sumerians and Semites in Early Mesopotamian History, The
Assyrian New Year
Babylonian Diplomacy in the Amarna Letters
Babylonian Omen Text, A
Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake God and of the Caduceus
Babylonian Tammuz Lamentations
Belshazzar's Feast and the Cult of the Moon God Sin
Biblical Nimrod and the Kingdom of Nanna, The
Black Stone of Esarhaddon, The
Cernunnos Origin and Transformation
Chicago Syllabary, The
Christian Intolerance of Homosexuality
Common Source for the Late Babylonian Chronicles Dealing with the Eighth and Seventh Centuries, A
Composit Bau Text, A
Conflict of Generations in Ancient Mesopotamian Myths, The
Contribution to the Knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian Medicine, A
Court Ceremonial and Marriage in the Sumerian Epic “Gilgamesh and Huwawa'
Danu and Bile: The Primordial Parents?
Darwinism, Genre Theory, and City Laments
Dedicating Magic: Neo-Assyrian Apotropiac Figurines and the Protection of Assur
Delitzsch's Sumerian Grammar
Eastern Mediterranean Epic Tradition from Bilgames and Akka to the Song of Release to Homer's Iliad, The
Elementary Sumerian Glossary
Empiricism in Babylonian Omen Texts and the Classification of Mesopotamian Divination as Science
Fall and Rise of Babylon, The
Fighting the Mountain: Some Observations on the Sumerian Myths of Inanna and Ninurta
Flood Hero as King and Priest, The
Form and Nature of E-Pa at Lagash, The
Gay Politics
Gender Transgression
Genetic Benefits Enhance the Reproductive Success of Polyandrous Females
Golden Garments of the Gods, The
Greek Calendar, The
Greek Mythology: Some New Perspectives
Half a Wife is Better Than None: A Practical Approach to Nonadelphic Polyandry
Hard Work -Where Will It Get You? Labor Management in Ur III Mesopotamia
Hebrew Idea of the Future Life: Babylonian Influence in the Doctrine of Sheol, The
Hekhalot Literature and Shamanism, The
Hesiod's Prometheus and Development in Myth
Himalayan Polyandry and the Domestic Cycle
History of Same-Sex Marriage, A
History, Homosexuality, and Political Values: Searching for the Hidden Determinants of Bowers v. Hardwick
Hittite sanna – 'One'
Hurran: Last Refuge of Classical Paganism
Hymn to Bel, A
Hymn to Mulil, A
Hymn to Nergal, A
Hymn to Ninkasi, A
Hymn to the Goddess Kir-ki-lu, A
Imagery of the Substitute King Ritual in Isaiah's Fourth Servant Song, The
In Praise of Ishtar
In the Shadow of the Muses: A View of Akkadian Literature
Individual Prayer in Sumerian
Introduction to Sumerian Grammar
Ishtar's Proposal and Gilgamesh's Refusal: An Interpretation of “The Gilgamesh Epic”, Tablet 6, Lines 1-79
Jewish Origins of Qur'an 18:65-82? Reexamining Arent Jan Wensinck's Theory, The
Kingship and Council in Israel and Sumer: A Parallel
Magical Transcription on a Chalcedony, A
Manichaica Aramaica? Adam and the Magical Deliverance of Seth
Matter of Method in Sumerology, A
Mesopotamian God Kakka, The
Mesopotamian Proverb and its Biblical Reverberations, A
Mitochondrial Eve: Critical Reflections on an African Basis to Science and Religion
Myth, Ritual and Order in "Enki and the World Order"
Name and Nature of the Sumerian God Uttu, The
New Aspect of the Sumerian Question, A
Northern Paiute Polyandry
Notes on "The Assyrian Tree"
Notes on the Pantheon of the Gudean Cylinders
Old Babylonian Marriage Contract, The
On Israel's Origins
On the Etymology of Ishtar
Organization and Management of the Temple Corporation in Ancient Mesopotamia, The
Pattern and Myth in the Old Testament
Phonetic Relations in Sumerian
Poets and Psalmists: Goddesses and Theologians
Polyandry and the Kinship Group
Polyandry in Sri Lanka: A Test Case for Investment Theory
Polyandry, Inheritance and the Definition of Marriage
Priestly Account of Building the Tabernacle, The
Priests of the Goddess: Gender Transgression in Ancient Religion
Proper Names of Babylonia and Assyria
Prophecy in the Ancient Near East
Shoshoni Polyandry
Some Comments on the Ebabbara in the Neo-Babylonian Period
Some Rituals Associated with Parturition in Antiquity
Some Sumerian Etymologies
Study of Diachronic and Synchronic Variation in Sumerian , A
Sumerian and Akkadian Views of Beginnings
Sumerian as a Language
Sumerian Literature: A Preliminary Survey of the Oldest Literature in the World
Sumerian Proverbs in their Curricular Context
Sumerian Similes: A Panoramic View of Some of Man's Oldest Literary Images
Temples of Babylonia and Assyria, The
Toward a New Conceptualization of the Female Role in Mesopotamia
Trade, Women, Class, and Society in Ancient Western Asia
Unique Talmudic Aramaic Incantation Bowl, A
Verbal Prefixes and Infixes in Sumerian, The
Vocabulary of Sumerian, The
When You Perform the Ritual of Rubbing on Medicine and Magic in Ancient Mesopotamia
Women of Sumer
Writing Histories of Sexuality in the Middle East